By Ivar Lodemel, Amilcar Moreira
The decade of the 20 th century was once marked by means of a shift in how welfare-states care for these on the backside of the source of revenue ladder. This shift concerned the introduction/strengthening of work-obligations as a for receiving minimal source of revenue merits - which, in a few international locations, used to be complemented by means of efforts to aid recipients go back to the labour industry, particularly during the funding in lively labour industry guidelines (ALMP).
Based on case-studies of advancements within the US and 8 ecu international locations (UK, Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Germany, France, Portugal and the Czech Republic), this ebook argues that this primary set of reforms used to be via a moment wave of reforms that, when deepening the trail in the direction of the focal point on paintings, brings vital strategies- be it the instruments used to aid recipients again to the labour markets (ex., monetary incentives) and in how activation rules are introduced (ex., integration of gain and employment services).
Looking on the array of advancements brought in this interval, we parent key traits.
The first issues the strengthening of the position of the marketplace within the governance of activation, that is seen within the strengthening of the point of interest on paintings, or the marketisation of employment companies. the second one, matters a stream in the direction of the individualisation of carrier supply, seen within the enlargement of using own motion plans or in efforts to streamline carrier supply.
Finally, we express that the onset of the sovereign debt difficulty in Europe, has brought on a brand new wave of reforms. when tentative basically, our research issues to a being concerned development of the curtailment or advantages (Portugal) and activation providers (Netherlands, Czech Republic) to minimal source of revenue recipients and, in parallel, another deepening of the point of interest on work-conditionality (UK and Norway).
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Additional info for Activation or Workfare? Governance and the Neo-Liberal Convergence
2006). 2 That this group is falling behind in income development is paradoxical, given the enhanced goal in the 21st century of combating poverty in this group, a focus we shall explore in the next section. The Fight Against Poverty: Call for a New Activation Approach In the 1997 parliamentary elections, Norway’s Labour government was taken to task for not having done enough to concretely address the issue of poverty (Hagen & Lødemel, 2003). In 1998, the newly reigning center-right government spoke to the idea of a “softer work approach” in its 1998 White Paper on Equalization and emphasized the need to develop more flexible and individualized support schemes for the transition to work (Sosial- og helsedepartementet, 1999; Bryn, 2008).
Norway’s punitive and restrictive Poor Law services were replaced with the creation and gradual extension of social insurance programs from the end of the 19th century and to the sixth decade of the 20th century (Lødemel, 1997a). 620), and since World War II Norway’s social democratic welfare system has sought to universally decommodify the country’s residents through a system funded via high taxes (Esping-Andersen, 1990; Hvinden, 2008). Lødemel, Dahl, and Drøpping (2001) trace four distinct periods of Norwegian postwar welfare policy.
Throughout the early years of the twenty-first century, however, consecutive governments have called for and initiated measures to facilitate the expanded involvement of this sector, particularly in relation to its social activation efforts. This shift has been based on the rationale that nonprofit organizations possess a better knowledge and expertise on and enjoy higher levels of trust from hard-to-serve target groups (Harsløf, 2003). Since 2005, the government has set aside funds for activation stimulation activities taking place within voluntary organizations, focusing on groups with particularly strong deficits.
Activation or Workfare? Governance and the Neo-Liberal Convergence by Ivar Lodemel, Amilcar Moreira