New PDF release: Advanced abacus: Japanese theory and practice

By Takashi Kojima


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Additional info for Advanced abacus: Japanese theory and practice

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In ancient China the “standard method of division” was used by means of reckoning blocks. ” These weights were extremely important in Chinese life because they were used in the conversion of currency. When the abacus was introduced to Japan, it was the “older method of division” which accompanied it. The currency in Japan also was not based on the decimal system, so that although the “standard method of division” was strongly advocated by some mathematicians, it never won real public support. It was not until the new decimal-based currency of the Meiji era replaced the old Japanese currency that the “standard method of division” actually became standard.

On rod G. e. on rod I. (B) shows that when the divisor is a mixed number with one whole digit, the unit rod of the quotient forms on the second rod to the left of that of the dividend, E. e. rod K. e. rod E. e. on rod H. e. on rod F. e. on rod F. , on rod K. 42 Advanced Abacus Japanese Theory and Practice, by Takashi Kojima VI - CALCULATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAN ONE UNIT OF MEASUREMENT 1. Setting Compound Numbers on the Board In setting a compound number, a measurement expressed in more than one unit, on the board, the part with the highest denomination is first set on a unit rod, and all the other parts are set so that they are separated by at least one vacant rod.

Next multiplying the same 6 on E by 2, add the product 12 to the 68 on GH, and clear E of the 6. This gives you a total of 80 on GH (Fig. 133). NOTE: Be sure to dispose of the 6 of 256 first, next the 5, and finally the 2. STEP 4: Multiplying the 5 on D by 10, set the product 50 on FG. This makes a total of 580 on FGH. Next, multiplying the same 5 on D by 2, add the product 10 to the 58 on FG, and clear D of the 5. This gives you a total of 680 on FGH (Fig. 134). STEP 5: Multiplying the 2 remaining on C by 10, set the product 20 on EF.

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Advanced abacus: Japanese theory and practice by Takashi Kojima

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