By K.N. Ngan, T. Meier, D. Chai
In recent times, the paradigm of video coding has shifted from that of a frame-based method of a content-based procedure, fairly with the finalization of the ISO multimedia coding general, MPEG-4. MPEG-4 is the rising common for the coding of multimedia content material. It defines a syntax for a collection of content-based functionalities, specifically, content-based interactivity, compression and common entry. despite the fact that, it doesn't specify how the video content material is to be generated. To generate the video content material, video should be segmented into video gadgets and tracked as they transverse around the video frames. This ebook addresses the tricky challenge of video segmentation, and the extraction and monitoring of video item planes as outlined in MPEG-4. It then makes a speciality of the explicit factor of face segmentation and coding as utilized to videoconferencing so that it will increase the standard of videoconferencing pictures specially within the facial sector. Modal-based coding is a content-based coding process used to code man made items that experience develop into an incredible a part of video content material. It leads to tremendous low bit premiums simply because merely the parameters had to characterize the modal are transmitted. Model-based coding is integrated to supply heritage info for the unreal item coding in MPEG-4. finally, MPEG-4, the 1st coding usual for multimedia content material is defined intimately. the subjects lined comprise the coding of audio gadgets, the coding of traditional and artificial video items, and blunder resilience. complex Video Coding is among the first books on content-based coding and MPEG-4 coding regular. It serves as an outstanding details resource and reference for either researchers and practising engineers.
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Additional info for Advanced Video Coding: Principles and Techniques: The Content-based Approach (Advances in Image Communication, Volume 7)
Unfortunately, to find such pairs without supervision is not an easy task. As a result, the parameters are usually obtained either by fitting the model in the least-squares sense to a dense motion field obtained by a non-parametric method or directly from the signal I(x; t) and gradient information. 6. Parametric model-based motion estimation and segmentation algorithms are indeed very popular. In model-based coding schemes, regions typically represent areas of similar image characteristics such as color or intensity and are therefore relatively small.
Notice that the characteristic or similarity measure is a low-level feature such as color, intensity, or optical flow. Therefore, apart from very simple cases where the features directly correspond to objects, the resulting partitions do not have any semantical meaning attached to them. An interpretation of the scene must be obtained by a higher-level process, after the segmentation into primitive regions has been carried out. A complete coverage of all the different image segmentation approaches would be far beyond the scope of this book.
3 (c)). To this end, an edge-thinning technique called non-maximum suppression can be applied. 28). If it is a local maximum, the pixel will be finally classified as edge; otherwise it is a non-edge pixel. 27). Consequently, the gradient magnitude [VI(x,y)l would be set to ]AIver(X,y)l. Furthermore, the non-maximum suppression technique would have to compare the gradient magnitude of (x, y) with that of its two vertical neighbors. Thus, pixel (x, y) would be classified as an edge if and only if IV/~(x, Y)I > [V/~(x - 1, y)[ and IVl(x,y)l > IVI(x + 1,y)l.
Advanced Video Coding: Principles and Techniques: The Content-based Approach (Advances in Image Communication, Volume 7) by K.N. Ngan, T. Meier, D. Chai