By J. Fricke (auth.), Professor Dr. Jochen Fricke (eds.)
This publication includes the papers offered on the "First overseas Sympo st sium on Aerogels (1 ISA)", held in September 1985 at. the collage of Wiirzburg, Fed. Rep. of Germany. It was once the 1st meet.ing of this type, wit.h contributors from numerous eu count.ries, the U.S. of the US, Canada, South the USA, and Africa. The assembly used to be interdisciplinary, with lots of the members being physicists, chemists or fabric scientists ei ther from universities or from commercial learn institutes. allow me attempt to shed a few gentle upon the category of gear the symposium was once approximately: Aerogels are tremendous porous high-tech fabrics, consisting ei ther of silica, alumina, zirconia, stannic or tungsten oxide or combinations of those oxides. because of their excessive porosity (up t.o 99%!) and t.heir huge internal floor, aerogels function specifically energetic catalysts or as catalytic subst.rates, as adsorbents, fillers, reinforcement brokers, pigments and gellifying brokers. Silica aerogels as translucent or obvious superinsulating fillers in window structures may perhaps aid to significantly decrease thermal losses in home windows and to enhance the power stability in passive sun structures. Aerogels even have fas cinating acoustic houses - the sound pace may be as little as a hundred m/s! The creation of aerogels starts off with the managed conversion of a sol right into a gel: the expansion of clusters or polymer chains from a chemical answer, the cross-linking of those basic entities and the formation of a coherent community - nonetheless embedded in a liquid.
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Extra info for Aerogels: Proceedings of the First International Symposium, Würzburg, Fed. Rep. of Germany September 23–25, 1985
It was shown that the temperature of the onset of crystallization Tc is primarily influenced by the alkali content. 2 mol% of Na~O or K20 decreases Tc by 250°C while the same amount of Li20 decreases Tc by 400 C. The method of preparation of the gel plays a minor role. On the contrary, the densification characteristics of the gel are strongly dependent on the texture linked with the mode of preparation.
Also, a thermar-Ereatment at 1000°C in vacuum, but not in air, preserves the amorphous state of alumina aerogel. 5. Modification of the Procedure of the Preparation of Aerogels Aluminium sec-butoxide is soluble in sec-butanol. but other aluminium alcoxides are not soluble in the corresponding alcohols. The initial method was therefore modified for other alcoxides, insoluble in alcohols . a) Aluminium (or other metal) alcoxide is dissolved in benzene, then hydrolyzed by the addition of the required amount of water, either pure (heterogeneous liquidliquid medium),or dissolved in the alcohol (homogeneous medium).
Moreover, they do not deactivate with time on stream. T. reaction conditions, of Fe304 by the interaction of the initial Fe203 with the high surface-area aerogel (S10 2 or A1 203 ) support. T. reaction, of a qraphitic carbon and of iron carbides. This is no longer observed on oxidized iron aerogel cata1 sts. Typically, the surface area of Fe203/Si02 aerogel is of the order of 800 m /g and its productivity is of the order of 1 kg of paraffins per 1 kg of catalyst per hour. By comparison,the conventional reduced iron cata- 2 28 lyst has a surface area of 10 m2/g and exhibits a productivity of 3 g of paraffins per 1 kg of catalyst per hour, for the same conditions of the reaction.
Aerogels: Proceedings of the First International Symposium, Würzburg, Fed. Rep. of Germany September 23–25, 1985 by J. Fricke (auth.), Professor Dr. Jochen Fricke (eds.)