By Maria Lidia Herrera
This e-book will evaluate outdated and new tips on how to learn emulsion balance and constitution. Examples of emulsion-based meals contain ice cream, yoghurt, and mayonnaise. The physicochemical homes of emulsions play a tremendous function in meals structures, as they at once give a contribution to the feel, sensory and dietary houses of meals. one of many major houses is balance, which refers back to the skill of an emulsion to withstand actual adjustments through the years. the advance of a good technique to hinder bad alterations within the houses of a specific foodstuff emulsion relies on the dominant physicochemical mechanism(s) accountable for the alterations. In perform, or extra of those mechanisms may possibly function in live performance. it's hence vital for foodstuff scientists to spot the relative value of every mechanism, the connection among them, and the criteria that impact them, in order that potent technique of controlling the steadiness and physicochemical homes of emulsions could be validated. a number of thoughts are used to review the actual habit and constitution of emulsions. each one method has its merits and drawbacks and offers various insights into the destabilization mechanisms. one of the oldest tools used to review emulsion balance is visible statement and small deformation rheometry. extra lately, different ideas, similar to ultrasound profiling, microscopy, droplet dimension distribution, and dimension of floor focus to signify adsorbed protein on the interface, have additionally been hired. a few of these options, similar to droplet measurement distribution, contain a few type of dilution. even though, dilution disrupts a few buildings that play a tremendous position in balance. the facility to review the steadiness of nutrition emulsions of their undiluted shape may perhaps show sophisticated nuances approximately their balance. Diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS), laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Turbiscan are one of the extra strong, non-perturbing suggestions used to characterised emulsions.
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Additional info for Analytical Techniques for Studying the Physical Properties of Lipid Emulsions
Observations by TEM confirmed that most solidified hydrogel particles were dispersed in the center of the gel-core-SLN in the form of a single core, which effectively prevented the diffusion of proteins to the external water phase during the preparation process. Traditionally, synthetic surfactants or surface-active polymers, which tend to be adsorbed onto the interface and thereby reduce the interfacial free energy, were employed as emulsifiers in the preparation of stable emulsions. With increasing legal and consumer requirements such as nontoxic, biocompatible, mild to skin, high ecological acceptability, attractive price-to-performance ratio, and degrees of freedom in selecting and designing, these classic emulsifiers are becoming more and more limited.
The relative concentrations of monoacyl propylene glycol/zinc fatty acid carboxylate, the two main emulsifying components of the emulsifiers used, influenced the microstructure and, as a consequence, the rheological properties of the finally obtained W/O emulsions. By increasing the concentration of zinc carboxylates, an easier flow of W/O emulsions can be obtained. This is because a different structure of the emulsions is formed for various monoacyl propylene glycol/ zinc carboxylate proportions.
Thus, measurements of protein surface concentration are very relevant since they are closely related to the stability of emulsions. Although the interface plays a critical role, the interfacial protein concentration cannot be studied directly. Kalnin et al. (2004) presented a new method for the determination of particle surface coverage by NaCas based on density measurements. In this respect, easy-to-apply techniques are well suited to study colloids of biological, pharmaceutical, medical, or industrial interest.
Analytical Techniques for Studying the Physical Properties of Lipid Emulsions by Maria Lidia Herrera