By Robert A. Pape
From Iraq to Bosnia to North Korea, the 1st query in American overseas coverage debates is more and more: Can air strength on my own do the task? Robert A. Pape presents a scientific solution. studying the result of over thirty air campaigns, together with an in depth reconstruction of the Gulf warfare, he argues that the foremost to luck is attacking the enemy's army process, now not its economic system, humans, or leaders. Coercive air strength can be successful, yet now not as cost effectively as air fans wish to believe.
Pape examines the air raids on Germany, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and Iraq in addition to these of Israel as opposed to Egypt, delivering info of bombing and governmental determination making. His distinct narratives of the strategic effectiveness of bombing diversity from the classical situations of worldwide battle II to a unprecedented reconstruction of airpower use within the Gulf warfare, according to lately declassified records. during this now-classic paintings of the idea and perform of airpower and its political results, Robert A. Pape is helping army strategists and coverage makers pass judgement on the aim of assorted air ideas, and is helping common readers comprehend the coverage debates.
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Additional resources for Bombing to Win: Air Power and Coercion in War
Of the major components of modern military power-land, sea, and air power-each of which can be used for coercive purposes, air power, particularly strategic bombing, most cogently reveals the relative effectiveness of different coercive strategies. The utility of each of the major instruments of military coercion has been modified over time by changes in the organization of the modern nation-states. 50 Democratization and industrialization, in particular, have led to changes in military technologies, the costs of war, and the ability of modern societies to absorb these costs.
They succeed if and when the coercer undermines the target state's military strategy to control the specific territory in dispute. 4. Surrender of homeland territory is especially unlikely. Nationalist sentiments demand resistance to foreign rule even when physical security cannot be guaranteed. 5. Surrender terms that incorporate heavy additional punishment will not be accepted. There is no incentive to concede when the costs of surrender outweigh those of continued resistance. Societies that expect to become victims of genocide will not surrender.
Control of territory revolved around fortified castles, which were extremely difficult to capture, and armies were small enough that they could and often did raid deep into enemy territory, sowing destruction and disease over wide areas. Indeed, armies invaded hostile territory less to seize strategic points than simply to pillage the land, and they rarely engaged each other in battle. 51 During the early modern period, a host of factors, including changes in military technology, rivalry between monarchs and nobility, and the rise of state bureaucracy, brought about a shift from small feudal and mercenary forces to large standing armies.
Bombing to Win: Air Power and Coercion in War by Robert A. Pape