By Mark Monmonier
Within the subsequent century, sea degrees are envisioned to upward push at exceptional premiums, inflicting flooding around the globe, from the islands of Malaysia and the canals of Venice to the coasts of Florida and California. those emerging water degrees pose critical demanding situations to all features of coastal existence—chiefly monetary, residential, and environmental—as good as to the cartographic definition and mapping of coasts. it really is this part of coastal lifestyles that Mark Monmonier tackles in Coast traces. surroundings sail on a trip throughout transferring landscapes, cartographic expertise, and weather switch, Monmonier unearths that coastlines are as a lot a suite of rules, assumptions, and societal ideals as they're good black strains on maps.Whether for crusing charts or estate maps, Monmonier indicates, coastlines problem mapmakers to seize on paper a hugely abnormal land-water boundary perturbed via tides and storms and intricate through rocks, wrecks, and shoals. Coast traces is peppered with alluring anecdotes concerning the problematical attempt to expunge fictitious islands from nautical charts, the difficult size of a coastline’s size, and the contentious notions of beachfront estate and public access.Combing maritime historical past and the background of know-how, Coast traces charts the ancient development from offshore sketches to satellite tv for pc photographs and explores the societal effect of coastal cartography on every thing from worldwide warming to place of birth defense. Returning to the shape of his celebrated Air obvious, Monmonier ably renders the subject of coastal cartography obtainable to either common readers and historians of technological know-how, know-how, and maritime experiences. within the post-Katrina period, whilst the map of whole areas might be redrawn via a unmarried common occasion, the problems he increases are extra very important than ever.
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Additional resources for Coast Lines: How Mapmakers Frame the World and Chart Environmental Change
Trigonometry was a godsend for the nineteenth-century geodesist because precise measurement was much easier for angles than for distances. Trigonometry also promoted the efficient use of tedious, timeconsuming astronomical estimates of latitude and longitude. 2. Key elements of a primary geodetic triangulation network. Smaller triangles nested within the primary triangulation and added along the periphery yielded a denser network of lower-order stations. northeast and southwest ends of the network—in Maine and Louisiana (Texas was still part of Mexico).
A perspective view of the Troughton theodolite, drawn by Carolyn Hassler and published in Hassler, “Papers on Various Subjects Connected with the Survey of the Coast of the United States,” plate V. jpg. 18 Caroline provided other illustrations, and Hassler included a nine-page description of the large theodolite, a fourteen-page manual on its use and operation, and similarly detailed instructions for additional instruments, including two smaller, slightly less exact TRIANGLES AN D TOPOGR APHY 47 one-foot theodolites designed for measuring vertical and horizontal angles.
14 Hassler himself was also needy. In 1818 Congress had transferred the Survey of the Coast from the Treasury Department to the Navy, which dismissed its civilian employees, including the superintendent, who managed to support his family in various occupations, including tutor, farmer, and land surveyor, as well as by writing textbooks and selling off family heirlooms. Elimination of Hassler’s job was one of many setbacks. Appointed to the post in 1807, he received no money for salary or instruments, but found work as a mathematics professor, first at West Point, which fired its civilian instructors in 1810, and then at Union College, in Schenectady, New York, where his eccentric behavior alienated students and colleagues.
Coast Lines: How Mapmakers Frame the World and Chart Environmental Change by Mark Monmonier