By Tobias Kuhn (auth.), Norbert E. Fuchs (eds.)
Controlled traditional languages (CNLs) are subsets of traditional languages, acquired via - stricting the grammar and vocabulary as a way to decrease or cast off ambiguity and complexity. often, managed languagesfall into significant forms: those who - end up clarity for human readers, and those who let trustworthy computerized semantic research of the language. [. . . ] the second one kind of languages has a proper logical foundation, i. e. they've got a proper syntax and semantics, and will be mapped to an current formal language, akin to ?rst-order common sense. hence, these languages can be utilized as wisdom illustration languages, and writing of these languages is supported by way of absolutely au- matic consistency and redundancy assessments, question answering, and so on. Wikipedia Variouscontrollednatural languagesof the second one kind were developedby a n- ber of corporations, and feature been utilized in many various program domain names, so much lately in the Semantic net. The workshop CNL 2009 used to be devoted to discussing the similarities and the d- ferences of current managed usual languages of the second one kind, attainable impro- ments to those languages, relatives to different wisdom illustration languages, instrument help, present and destiny functions, and extra issues of interest.
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Extra info for Controlled Natural Language: Workshop on Controlled Natural Language, CNL 2009, Marettimo Island, Italy, June 8-10, 2009. Revised Papers
Strict partial ordering relations are transitive, irreﬂexive, and antisymmetrical. We can express these semantic properties directly in PENG Light via two conditional statements: 14. If X is a subclass of Y and Y is a subclass of Z then X is a subclass of Z. 15. If X is a subclass of Y then X is not equal to Y. 3 Part-Whole Relations A part-whole relation (or meronymic relation) has similar semantic properties as the class inclusion relation: it is a transitive, hierarchical, inclusion relation and can provide structure to the terminology.
Now if the rhetorical structure can be mapped to an argument structure, then the argument ground and claim should correspond to the satellite and nucleus, and we need to supply a plausible warrant for binding the two. The claim is that respect is engendered by the intellectual rigor and honesty with which a legal scholar arrives at a decision; the ground is that respect is not engendered by the particular outcome the scholar arrives at. So how does the claim follow from the ground? Here is a logical interpretation of Antithesis: (~(g = c) .
G > c) . g) > c (3) Other inferential relations following this pattern are Condition, Justify, Motivation, Enablement, Means, and Purpose, as well as the causal relations, NonvolitionalCause, Nonvolitional-Result, Volitional-Cause, and Volitional-Result. These relations all follow the familiar modus ponens logical structure. Note that with Motivation and Enablement, the nuclear claim is not an assertion of fact, but an action. Here is an example of Motivation: 5) We do, quite literally, possess the means to destroy all of mankind.
Controlled Natural Language: Workshop on Controlled Natural Language, CNL 2009, Marettimo Island, Italy, June 8-10, 2009. Revised Papers by Tobias Kuhn (auth.), Norbert E. Fuchs (eds.)