By Dirk Hofäcker, Moritz Hess, Stefanie König
To a backdrop of ageing societies, pension crises and labour marketplace reforms, this e-book investigates how the coverage shift from early retirement to lively growing old has affected person retirement behaviour. targeting 11 ecu international locations, the us and Japan, it brings jointly best overseas specialists to investigate fresh alterations in pension platforms. Their findings display that there was a primary transition in pension guidelines and a steep elevate in older staff’ retirement a long time and employment charges. but alterations in retirement habit should not flippantly dispensed throughout all societal strata. This increases the intense crisis that an total upward push within the retirement age should be followed by means of the re-emergence of social inequality within the transition from paintings to retirement. This cutting edge edited assortment will entice scholars and students of sociology, economics, political technological know-how, human assets administration, gerontology and social coverage, and likewise to policy-makers and execs facing older employees.
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Extra resources for Delaying Retirement: Progress and Challenges of Active Ageing in Europe, the United States and Japan
The only exception is Sweden that—after a major downturn in the 1980s and 1990s (see Sjögren-Lindquist 2006)—has now returned almost to its previous values from the 1970s. Most recent OECD data between 2008 and 2011 indicate that employment of older workers has declined following the financial euro crisis in some countries, especially in Spain and Estonia. Generally, however, early exit reversal has remained remarkably stable among European countries following the most recent crisis. Nonetheless, older workers’ employment rates often still remain below political targets and their labor market integration is still considered as being critical.
Another major factor in increasing the need to remain employed has been general cuts in the level of public pensions either by delaying access to them, reducing replacement rates, or introducing demographic factors into their calculation. A final shift is reflected in the politically supported gradual move from dominantly public pension systems to multipillar systems featuring both occupational as well as private pension pillars (Ebbinghaus 2011). In particular, private pension systems adhere explicitly to a strongly contribution-based pattern in which later benefits depend directly on previous contributions.
In order to interpret the replacement rate for public pensions correctly, it is necessary to consider the share of public pensions in overall pension income. 2 thus shows how important benefits from public pensions are for the respective old age income. To simultaneously consider the redistributive effects of the public pension system across different societal strata, it differentiates the share of different income groups reflecting the country’s average income, one-half of the average income, and one-and-a-half times the average income.
Delaying Retirement: Progress and Challenges of Active Ageing in Europe, the United States and Japan by Dirk Hofäcker, Moritz Hess, Stefanie König